INDUSTRY SEGMENTS

Upstream

Upstream Onshore Conventional

Oil and Gas treatment facilities for conventional onshore developments. Oil gathering and separation systems and gas treatment and fractionation plants constitute the bulk of this segment; but EOR systems (such as gas injection) are also present, alongside similar brownfield projects aiming at extending the life of ageing fields.

Oil Sands

There are mainly two kinds of projects in this segment. Very large mining projects, and smaller SAGD recovery projects. While the former is self-explanatory, the latter relies on the injection of steam in the tar reservoir in order to facilitate extraction.

Offshore Platforms

Traditional offshore developments composed of topsides mounted on jackets anchored to the seabed. Alongside larger manned platforms, there are smaller unmanned wellhead platforms. Decommissioning projects are increasingly important in regions such as the North Sea.

FPSO/TLP/SPAR

Surface facilities for deep-water development projects. FPSO’s tend to be transformed from oil tankers, but purpose built vessels are all but infrequent. TLPs and SPARs differ in their mooring systems, and are closer in concept to traditional offshore developments, even though relying on subsea field developments.

Subsea Field Development

Subsea facilities for deep-water developments. Subsea production systems (SPS) tied back to a platform of FPSO through flowlines, risers and umbilicals. Tiebacks to existing platforms are increasingly popular for cost reasons.

Midstream

LNG Onshore Liquefaction Plant

Oil and Gas treatment facilities for conventional onshore developments. Oil gathering and separation systems and gas treatment and fractionation plants constitute the bulk of this segment; but EOR systems (such as gas injection) are also present, alongside similar brownfield projects aiming at extending the life of ageing fields.

Small Scale LNG

ssLNG plants are expected projected to expand rapidly to support local demand of marine LNG bunkering, LNG road trucking and off-grid power.

Floating LNG (FLNG)

Deployed directly on offshore fields, these plants are comparable to FPSOs in their concept. Due to costs and conceptual development reasons, they are not widespread yet.

FSRU

Floating version of a regasification plant. Often leased, for cost reasons, and moored for connection to the national gas grid. Sometimes built as a complement to a gas fired power project.

Onshore Pipeline

Pipeline transporting gas, crude or products: onshore sections. Frequent scope of works include substitution or revamping of compression stations for gas pipelines, but greenfield projects are far more common.

Offshore Pipeline

Pipeline transporting gas, crude or products: offshore sections. Highly specialised scope of work. Brownfield projects (i.e. pipe replacement) are still rare.

Storage and Terminals

Broad segment including all facilities aimed at storing and receiving crude and products. Alongside oil tank farms, we find LNG storage tanks and underground gas storage facilities.

Downstream

Gas-to-Liquid (GTL)

Facilities aimed at the production of synfuel from natural gas. Heavily penalised by current energy prices.

Petrochemical

Broad segment including all facilities for the production of chemicals derived from crude and gas. Two broad categories: aromatics and olefins. Olefins (such as ethylene, propylene and derivatives) constitute the largest group. Brownfield projects aimed at revamping existing plants constitute a substantial portion of the projects in this segment.

Refining

Alongside greenfield refinery developments, it includes all the modernisation projects aimed at meeting increasingly stricter clean fuels regulations. Expansions of existing plants are also popular, combined with upgrade projects or on a standalone basis.

Fertilizers

Ammonia, urea or combined plants. Revamping projects of existing facilities are also frequent. The latest developments often include production capabilities for diesel exhaust fuel additives (DEF).

PROJECT STATUS
PLANNING

The project has not been sanctioned yet. It can be at a design stage and/or being discussed internally the funding and the Final Investment Decision (FID)

ONGOING

Project that is being delivered after a formal award and with a defined scope of work)

BID ONGOING

The project has not been awarded yet. The bidding phase is still ongoing, the contractors involved are submitting their proposals. RFPs and Tender requests are closely monitored in this phase.

COMPLETED

Construction, pre-commissioning and commissioning have been completed on the project and production has commenced at the plant.

JUST AWARDED

Award of the tendered Contract(s) to selected Contractor(s) – frequently in Consortium and/or Joint Venture

ON HOLD

Project that was being delivered after a formal award and that has now been interrupted.

CANCELLED

Project has progressed to a certain point and has then been abandoned. The reasons are nearly always due to financing problems, a lack of final consenting approval or political intervention

INFO BY PROJECT
SupplHi IDUnique ID code assigned to a single project. It allows to constantly track the project and to perform “vlookups” for internal use on Excel files.
Project NameThe most detailed element of knowledge in the Database. It is named according to the most characterizing features (e.g. the name of the location, client, activity performed, …). It is present in the Database as many times as necessary to allow for optimal tracking – depending on the number of scopes of work, Contractors, contracts and statuses.
Phase / PackageIdentifies projects that are typically associated to different phases and packages.
IndustryOften named after its principal product (e.g. Oil & Gas, Chemicals, Power, …), and further split in macro-segments and segments.
Macro-Segment and SegmentThe main phases of the value chain of a specific industry. They are designed to be homogeneous in terms of competitive dynamics and main actors involved. The SupplHi Team puts a great effort in associating the projects to the right segment, providing standardization in the industry.
Onshore / OffshoreProjects can be associated to either Onshore or Offshore activities.
Greenfield / Expansion / BrownfieldGreenfield refers to new developments, while Expansion is an entire new unit associated to an existing project and Brownfield (frequently mentioned as revamping) activities are linked to the improvement of existing plants and may require – as well – high volumes of CAPEX.
Scope of workThe high level description of the work to be performed under a contract or subcontract within the project (e.g. an entire refinery, the Utilities package of a large Upstream plant, …).
Destination (Region / Country / Location)Typically the nearest town to where the Project will be delivered or, for Offshore projects, the name of the field or block. It does not necessarily represent the main place where the activities will be executed. All projects are geo-localized and made available on an online map, allowing to zoom in on the facility involved.
End-User(s)The final user of the project, typically comprising multiple companies, frequently in Joint Ventures for that specific project. Percentages of the JV are indicated in the Project Notes.
Operator/Main End-UserThe ones influencing the technical specifications and Vendor List of a project, because they will be operating the plant for multiple years. For this information, SupplHi adopts a Group-first perspective, giving priority to any Groups of companies Operating the plant.
ContractorThe company(ies) executing the project and managing the main contract (they maybe sub-contracting a part of the activities). It can be a single player as well as a Joint Venture or Consortium of players (in this case the names of the members are separated by a “/” in the Database). Information on the leadership of the JV or Consortium and specific scope of work are provided in the Notes. Engineering Co.’s typically carry out the FEED activities, while EPC Contractors the Engineering, Procurement and Construction phase.
Country of Project ExecutionThe country where the project is mainly executed (e.g. the country where the shipyard is building an FPSO, or the country where the engineering center is located for a FEED execution)
Contract typeThe type of contractual relationship between the End-User and the Engineering Co. / EPC Contractor Co. The main types of contracts are described in the next section.
Estimated Award, Start and End datesThe set of dates when, respectively, the Contract was awarded, started and is expected to be completed by the Engineering Co. / EPC Contractor Co. When not available on the market, the SupplHi Team provides an estimate, based on its best knowledge of the project.
CapacityThe capacity added to the plant under a standard unit of measure. In case of brownfield projects, only the incremental is considered.
CAPEXThe amount of money required to deliver the scope of work of the contract for the project. It is expressed in Million USD, homogenized by the SupplHi Team using the average annual FX rate to USD. When the information is not available on the market, an Estimated CAPEX is always derived by the SupplHi Team, using linear regressions with high coefficients of determination (e.g. R2>70%).
Project ProbabilityThe SupplHi Team uniquely assigns – for all projects – a probability to each project in the Database to discover which projects are most likely to be completed and which are most likely to fail. Many factors can affect the outcome of a project, both exogenous, such as new governmental regulations, and endogenous, such as a company’s history of previous works, and they must all be taken into consideration during this type of analysis.
Weighted CAPEXAllows to calculate the real market size for a specific segment, geography, client and others. It is produced by multiplying the CAPEX (always available) and the Project Probability.
TechnologyThe technology license utilized for a specific project. This is particularly relevant in the Downstream macro-segment (Refining, Petrochemicals and Fertilizers), with indication of the licensor. In case multiple licenses are present, the Project Notes provide more details on the specific application.
NotesProvide more detailed descriptions of the characteristics, scope of work, status and stakeholders of the project. When available, they also provide info on the status of the funding and of the Contractors that are involved in the Bidding phase of the project.
Last Info UpdateRepresents the last time when the SupplHi Team updated the information on that specific project – allowing you to easily prioritize your review of the information available.
CONTRACT TYPE
Feasibility StudyAssessment of the viability of a development, both from a commercial and a technical point of view.
Basic DesignBasic Engineering comes after the Conceptual Design or Feasibility study. It focuses on the technical requirements as well as the rough investment and cost estimates for the project.
Technology LicensingContract based on which a company will supply the license and/or technology for a specific facility.
Project Management Consulting (PMC)An engineering contractor that overlooks the EPC Contractor’s work to ensure compliance with the scope of work on behalf of the Client. Project management practices, processes or methodologies are usually involved.
Front End Engineering and Design (FEED) A basic engineering performed after the Conceptual design or Feasibility study. It focuses on the technical requirements as well as the rough investment cost estimates for the project. It can be divided into separate packages covering different portions of the project. The FEED package is used as a basis for bids on the Execution Phase Contracts (EPC, EPCI, …) and is the basis for detailed designs.
EPC ServicesBroad category of services related to the EPC activities, which include: Feasibility Study, Basic Design, Technology Licensing, PMC, FEED, EPCM and other Engineering-related activities.
Final Investment Decision (FID) It is the investment decision made by the End-User to approve the execution of a new capital project. FIDs are made only when the financing for the project has been secured. FIDs must not be confused with FEEDs.
Engineering, Procurement, Construction (EPC)EPC works are awarded to only one company (or consortium) that is fully responsible for the whole project, including all project risks. This does not prevent the EPC contractor from subcontracting part of the work.
Engineering, Procurement (EP)This type of contract differs from an EPC Contract, as the Contractor is not directly involved in the construction but is responsible for managing the Construction Contracts.
Engineering, Procurement, Construction Management (EPCM)EPC model which refers only to the management of (E,P,C) subcontractors and thus taking a smaller portion of the risks associated with the EPC project.
ConstructionSite preparation and on-site construction of fixed structures or facilities according to project requirements.
Engineering, Procurement, Construction, Installation (EPCI)Lump Sum Turn Key (LSTK) type of Contract integrating the responsibility starting from the conception to the installation and final acceptance of one or more elements of a production system. It is typically used for Offshore projects and can be awarded for all, or part, of a field development.
InstallationOffshore construction consists of the installation of structures and facilities in a marine environment through dedicated Construction Support Vessels.
Build Operate Transfer (BOT)Full value chain approach where the contractor builds the plant, operates it and transfers it at the end of the operation contract to e.g. a government or private client.
Build Own Operate Transfer (BOOT)Similar to BOT, but offering the additional service of investing in the plant, (partly) owning it.
Build-Operate-Own, Build-Lease-Transfer (BOO / BLT)The contractor not only builds the project but is also involved in managing the finished facility. These contracts transfer significant financial and operational risks to the contractors and are mainly used by governments that lack the investment capacity or by private companies that consider the finished product non-strategic for their business.
Operation & Maintenance (O&M)Usually an additional service/ value chain coverage provided by e.g. the EPC contractor, which also operates and conducts maintenance on the plant that has been built. Ensures a smooth transfer into operation mode.
MaintenancePreventive and corrective maintenance of a specific plant, or part of it, which is frequently multi-disciplinary (electrical, instrumentation, …).
Maintenance & ModificationsContract awarded at a production site. The contractor is responsible for ensuring the project operates without issues and is responsible for undertaking any preventive and corrective maintenance.
Frame Agreement A framework is an agreement with suppliers to establish terms governing contracts that may be awarded on multiple projects during the life of the agreement.
Lump Sum Turn Key (LSTK)Client and contractor negotiate a fixed price before operations start. The contractor is responsible for delivering the project to the client, in time and with all required specifications, otherwise high penalties apply.
ReimbursableUnder cost reimbursable or cost plus regime the end-user pays the contractor for costs incurred plus a predetermined margin or profit.
ACRONYMS

1P
Proven Reserves

2P
Proven + Probable Reserves

3P
Proven + Probable + Possible Reserves

ASU
Air Separation Unit

BDO
Butanediol

BOG
Boil Off Gas

CAN
Calcium Ammonium Nitrate

CCS
Carbon Capture Storage

CDU
Crude Distillation Unit

CPF
Central Process Facilities

CTL
Coal-To-Liquid

CTM
Coal-To-Methanol

DCC
Deep Catalytic Cracking

DCP
Dicumyl Peroxide

DCU
Delayed Coker Unit

DHDS
DeHydroDeSulfurization

DNT
Dinitrotoluene

E&P
Exploration and Production

ECA
Export Credit Agency

EOR
Enhanced Oil Recovery

EPDM
Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer

ETBE
Ethyl Tert-Butyl Ether

ETO
Ethoxylation

FCC
Fluid Catalytic Cracking

FLNG
Floating Liquefied Natural Gas

FPSO
Floating Production Storage and Offloading

FPU
Floating Production Unit

FSO
Floating Storage

FSRU
Floating Storage Regasification Unit

FSU
Floating Storage Unit

GOSP
Gas Oil Separation Plant

GTL
Gas to Liquids

GTP
Gas to Polymers

HDPE
High-Density Polyethylene

HP-LDPE
High Pressure Low Density Polyethylene

HR-PIB
Highly-Reactive Polyisobutene

IB 
Isobutylene

IOC 
International Oil Company

LDPE
Low-Density Polyethylene

LLDPE
Linear Low-Density Polyethylene

LNG
Liquefied Natural Gas

LPG
Liquefied Petroleum Gas

M&M
Maintenance & Modification

MDI
Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate

MEG
Monoethylene Glycol

MoU
Memorandum of Understanding

MTBE
Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether

MTO
Methanol-To-Olefins

NGL
Natural Gas Liquids

NOC
National Oil Company

PDH
Propane DeHydrogenation

PE
PolyEthylene

PET
Polyethylene Terephthalate

PO
Propylene Oxide

PolyTHF
Polytetrahydrofuran

PP
PolyPropylene

PPS
Polyphenylene Sulfide

PSC
Production Sharing Contract

PTA
Purified Terephthalic Acid

SAGD
Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage

SMR
Steam Methane Reformer

SPS
Subsea Production System

SRU
Sulfur Recovery Units

S-SBR
Synthetic Rubber

SURF
Subsea, Umbilicals, Risers and Flowlines

TBA
Tert-Butyl Alcohol

TDI
Toluene Diisocyanate

TLP
Tension Leg Platform

U&O
Utilities & Offsites

ULQ
Utility and Living Quarters

VDU
Vacuum Distillation Unit

XLPE
Cross-Linked Polyethylene

UNITS OF MEASURE

b/d
Barrel per day

b/sd
Barrel per stream day

b/y
Barrel per year

Bboe
Billion barrels of oil equivalent

Bcfd
Billion cubic feet per day

Bcm
Billion cubic metres

Billion
m3/y Billion cubic metres per year

bpd
Barrel per day

cu m/d
Cubic metres per day

cu m/hr
Cubic metres per hour

in
Inches

Km
Kilometre

lb/year
pounds per year

m
Metres

m.t./year
Million tons per year


Cubic metres

m³/d
Cubic metres per day

m³/y
Cubic metres per year

Mcm
Million cubic metres

million lb/year
Million pounds per year

Mm³/y
Million cubic metres per year

MMbbl
Million barrels per day

MMboe
Million barrels of oil equivalent

MMcf/d, MMcfd
Million cubic feet per day

MTPA
Million tons per annum

MTPD
Million tons per day

MW
Megawatt

t
Tons

t/a or t/y
Tons per annum or Tons per year

t/d
Tons per day

TCF
Trillion cubic feet

TPD
Tons per day